Eteläkarjalainen maisema

Eteläkarjalainen maisema
Tässä blogissa on sekä kuvia että tarinoita upean Etelä-Karjalan luonnosta, ihmisistä ja kulttuurista. Kuvassa syyskuinen näkymä Saimaan kanavan varrelta.

maanantai 6. maaliskuuta 2017

Copper Country Finns were organizing militia for the Russo-Japanese War in 1904

I found this interesting clip in Detroit Free Press, published March 20, 1904. Finland was under a harsh Russian pressure at that time. Russian Tsarist administration was planning to Russify Finland and its autonomy was intended to gradually eliminate. Thousands of young Finnish men fled to North America in order to avoid the Russian military conscription. At the same time (February 8, 1904) began the Russo-Japanese War. Many Finns hoped the winner would be Japan. In Michigan's Copper Country Finns were so eager, they were organizing militia and purchasing rifles. Their intention seems to have been to go up to help Japanese troops.

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    The legendary Marshal of Finland Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim spent total of 30 years in the service of the Russian Armed Forces, in the end of the period when Finland was an autonomous Grand Duchy of Russia (1809–1917). For the most part of this time, Saint Petersburg was the hometown of Mannerheim.

    Mannerheim volunteered for duty in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, and was promoted to colonel for his bravery in the Battle of Mukden in 1905. He then commanded an exploratory mission into Inner Mongolia. In 1906–1908, Mannerheim served as a secret intelligence officer in Asia.

    In 1909–1910, Mannerheim served as a regiment commander in Poland. He was promoted to major general in 1910. In 1912, Mannerheim became part of the Russian Imperial entourage, and in 1913 was appointed cavalry brigade commander.

    At the beginning of World War I, Mannerheim fought as a brigade commander on the Austro-Hungarian and Romanian fronts. In December 1914, after distinguishing himself in combat against the Austro-Hungarian forces, Mannerheim was awarded the Order of St. George, 4th class. In March 1915, he was appointed to command the 12th Cavalry Division.

    In early 1917, Mannerheim witnessed the outbreak of the February Revolution in Saint Petersburg. After returning to the front, he was promoted to lieutenant General in April 1917 (promotion was backdated to February, 1915), and took command of the 6th Cavalry Corps in the summer of 1917. However, as Mannerheim did not support the Russian revolution, he returned to Finland.

    As the commander-in-chief of the defense forces of the newly-independent country of Finland, Mannerheim and his forces – which became known as the "whites" – defended the government of Finland against a coup attempt orchestrated by the Finnish Red Guard, during the Finnish Civil War.

    The Finnish Civil War broke out on January 27, 1918. It was inspired by the October Revolution (1917) of Russia. Mannerheim was promoted to general of cavalry in March, 1918, shortly before the final Finnish Civil War victory of the Finnish government forces which he lead.

    In the Civil War of Estonia, fought in 1918–1920, c. 4000 Finnish men loyal to Mannerheim played a critical role in the achieving of independence for Estonia.
    In the two Finnish-Soviet wars fought during World War II, the Winter War (1939–1940) and the Continuation War (1941–1944),

    Mannerheim led the Finnish Defense Forces against the attempts of the Soviet Union to conquer Finland. The Finnish-Soviet warring ended in a series of Finnish defensive victories in the summer of 1944.

    In his final victory, the now Marshal of Finland Mannerheim commanded the Finnish Defense Forces in the Lapland War, fought between Finland and Germany from September 1944 to April 1945. In that war, Finnish forces lead by Mannerheim chased away German forces from Northern Finland.

    Mannerheim was named the President of Finland on August 4, 1944, shortly before the Finnish-Soviet Continuation War ended. He stayed in office until March 4, 1946, when he resigned and retired, 19 months after the Continuation War had ended.

    • In June 2016, a memorial plaque honoring Mannerheim was erected in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Learn more:
    During the era of the Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809–1917, over 300 Finns rose to the top military ranks of general and admiral in the Russian imperial armed forces.

    Their importance may well be demonstrated with the fact that when the coronation of the last Emperor of Russia, Tsar Nicholas II, formally took place on May 26, 1896, Nicholas's private guard of seven high-ranking officers in the coronation included three Finns.